A “lame duck session” is when the House or Senate reconvenes in an even-numbered year following the November general elections to consider various items of business.
It’s called this because some of the lawmakers who return for this session will not be in Congress when it reconvenes in January.
Hence, these sessions are informally called “lame duck” members participating in a “lame duck session.” It’s their last chance to make their mark on the nation’s laws.
As a result, lame duck lawmakers are sometimes very unpredictable. They don’t need to raise money for reelection, so they are relatively more willing to take unpopular positions and stand up to lobbyists and other special interests.
Of course, they’re probably also less accountable to their constituents than lawmakers who intend to run again for their seats.
History of the Lame Duck Session
The first lame duck sessions in the modern Congress began in 1935, when the 20th Amendment to the Constitution took effect.
Under this amendment, which was ratified in 1933, Congress is scheduled to meet in a regular session on January 3 of each year.
Formally, a session of Congress ends when Congress adjourns sine die.